Day 3 Moderate Risk: Reasons Why It Could Be Huge … Or, Hugely Disappointing

Day 3 Outlook from the Storm Prediction Center.  Valid: Wednesday, April 17th.

Day 3 Outlook from the Storm Prediction Center. Valid: Wednesday, April 17th.

As most chaser types already know, the Storm Prediction Center has issued a moderate risk for severe weather for Wednesday.  A significant severe weather event is expected, but the kind of event is still uncertain.   Will it be a wind and hail day with a few tornadoes?  Or, will it be a full-scale tornado outbreak?  Or, more likely, will it be somewhere in-between? It’s still too early to say, of course.  And, as usual, many will dogmatically assert their favored position, but the truth is that we just don’t know yet.  Here are a few reasons why Wednesday could be huge, and a few reasons why it could be a dud.

Reasons Why Wednesday Could Be Huge

  • Strong upper-tropospheric trough entering the Plains – this will set the stage for robust moisture advection, strong low-level shear, and the transport of the elevated mixed layer off the High Plains (and associated steep lapse-rates).

    500 mb forecast for 00Z 18 April from 12Z 15 April NAM.

    NAM 500 mb forecast.  Valid: 00Z 18 April.  Initialized: 12Z 15 April.

  • Strong instability – the elevated mixed-layer looks primed – as it has all season – to generate strong instability.  Finally, rich moisture – almost 200 mb deep – will exist with it!  You can see this when toggling between the forecast CAPE and the forecast mixed-layer CAPE: they’re virtually the same.  Of course, this assumes that morning storms will not interfere with daytime heating.

    CAPE forecast for 21Z 17 April from 12Z 15 April NAM.

    NAM CAPE forecast.  Valid: 21Z 17 April.  Initialized: 12Z 15 April NAM.

  • Incredible hodographs– in spite of the screwy nature of the upper system (from a pattern-recognition standpoint), the hodographs look bodacious.   Very strong low-level shear should develop as early as noon, owing to the development of a 40 – 55 kt low-level jet.  As a result, the classic “sickle-shaped” hodographs – associated with most major tornado outbreaks – are forecast to develop.

    NAM forecast hodograph for Gotebo, Oklahoma.  Valid: 00Z 18 April.  Initialized: 12Z 15 April.

    NAM forecast hodograph for Gotebo, Oklahoma. Valid: 00Z 18 April. Initialized: 12Z 15 April.

  • Chaser-friendly storm motion – normally, storms move quite fast in 50 kt flow at 500 mb.  However, the low-level flow will be quite backed, which will slow the storm motion some (read: quite chaseable!).

Reasons Why Wednesday Could Be Disappointing

  • Weak cap / instability – the potential is there for some big CAPE, but will it materialize?  The cap is forecast to be weak, which could lead to the development of too many storms and a significant reduction in instability.
  • Poor phasing of parameters – generally, you look for negatively-tilted troughs for big tornado outbreaks, since the low-level shear is usually stronger in those cases (because of backed low-level flow) and the storm mode tends to be more favorable (because of the favorable orientation of the shear vector to the axis of the convecting boundary).  This system will be positively-tilted, which is generally associated with lesser events.  Will it matter?
  • Unfavorable storm mode – will a weak cap allow storms to develop early, leading to the early development of a mesoscale convective system?  Or will storms tend to “seed” each other, prompting the development of chaser-unfriendly high-precipitation storms?  Or will storms find optimal spacing, allowing for the development of multiple classic tornadic supercells?  These questions probably won’t be answered until the day the event occurs.

What do you think is the most likely outcome?

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Tornado Season is Here (and 5 Essential Steps to Stay Safe)

Spring is arriving.Image credit: stock.xchng

Spring is arriving.
Image credit: stock.xchng

It’s April, and if you live in the south, the gray pallete of winter is slowly – but perceptibly – changing into a cornucopia of springtime color. It’s warmer now (at last!), and most of us are happily trading the drudgery of overcast, barren trees, and overcoats for the long-awaited promise of blue skies, blooming flowers, and, of course, short sleeves. Even still, this bourgeoning beauty is accompanied by the barely-subconscious understanding that such seasonal delight comes at a price: severe weather.

Every spring, thousands of powerful thunderstorms sweep across the plains of the United States, leaving considerable mayhem and excitement in their wakes. Severe wind storms toss trash cans and trampolines into the streets, while leaving an inconvenient mess of tree branches in front yards. Hail storms cause quite a flurry, too, as folks rush about, trying to avoid the untimely christening of new vehicles. And, of course, the “flash” and “boom” of lightning and thunder never fail to frighten their fair share of small children and yippie dogs. But more often than not, these storms – like the scary-looking-but-relatively-benign beasts of Monsters Inc. – cause more good than harm, leaving behind copious quantities of beneficial rain.

A violent tornado striking Joplin, MO. Photo Credit:

A violent tornado striking Joplin, MO.
Image credit:

Residents of Joplin, Mo, after a violent tornado hit the southwest Missouri city, May 22, 2011. Photo Credit: AP Photo.

Residents of Joplin, Mo, after a tornado hit the southwest Missouri city, May 22, 2011.
Image credit: AP Photo

Even so, there remains the collective understanding that these powerful forces cannot always remain so benevolent. The forces of nature are simply too raw, too unbridled. And, in rare fury, they unleash straight winds that can lift the roof off your house, hail that can punch holes through your car’s windshield – and tornadoes that are capable of sweeping your house off its foundation. These are the storms that people talk about for years – even decades – after they occur. These are the Joplins (right), the Tuscaloosas, the Moores – front-page-grabbing events that evoke shock, awe, and horror. Observers near and far may experience a profound empathy, a numbing feeling of fatalism, or a discombobulating sense that, perhaps, these storms have no larger meaning. These are the scenes of war-zone-like macabre, with no one to prosecute.

And these are the storms that create jobs for weather people, like me. The horror of these storms spurs action, and savvy politicians use the moment to mutual advantage. But most meteorologists are not opportunists. In fact, many of us entered the profession because of just such a mega-storm. For me, it was 1990, when a strong tornado hit my hometown of Stillwater, Oklahoma. Then, tornadoes were simply terrifying. But I soon discovered the key to quelling fear: knowledge. As I grew older, I read as much I could find on tornadoes. And the knowledge was freeing: fear led to fascination, and fascination, to understanding. And it is this understanding that I wish to share with you.

Tornado Alley: Average number of tornadoes per year.

Tornado Alley: Average number of tornadoes per year.
Image credit: Oklahoma Climatological Survey

First, a warm blanket: as scary as violent tornadoes are, they are very rare. These worst of tornadoes (EF4/5) account for only 2% of all tornadoes in the United States1. Even in the heart of Tornado Alley (right), a single location may experience such a tornado only once in a 10,000 year period2. That means you could live over a hundred lives in Oklahoma and never experience a violent tornado. Nevertheless, these storms are responsible for a disproportionate fraction of tornado deaths1 (67%). To be sure, it isn’t a lottery you want to win. The good news is that you can vastly increase your probability of survival, even in the worst tornadoes. Read the following to do just that.

Steps to Severe Weather Safety

  1. Review tornado safety tips. It’s obvious, but if you don’t know what to do during a tornado, it will be difficult to survive. Review tornado safety procedures at the beginning of every storm season.
  2. Make a plan. If a violent tornado is headed right for you, it’ll be tough to think straight. Making a plan ensures that most of your thinking is done before that happens. Ask yourself these questions, and envision potential worst-case scenarios.

a. How will I stay informed before and after a tornado?
b. For whom am I responsible?
c. Where will I go if a warning is issued?
d. What will I need during and after a tornado hits?

  1. Build an emergency kit. Related to Question D, knowing what you will need during and after a tornado hits is crucial for survival. Food, water, first-aid kit, and boots are just some of the items you’ll need after a tornado hits.
  2. Know the forecast.  To be prepared for tornadoes, you need to know when they are possible.  First, check the Hazardous Weather Outlook from your local National Weather Service office to monitor for upcoming severe weather.  When severe weather is expected, you should also check out the severe weather outlook from the Storm Prediction Center (SPC); this team of severe weather experts produces daily forecasts for the entire country, and it’s a tremendous resource.  Finally, on the day of the potential event, you will want to check the forecast from your local weather office for severe weather updates.
  3.  Receive the warnings.  All of the previous tips are great, but if you don’t know when you’ll need to take cover from a tornado, they won’t be of any use to you.  There are many ways to receive the warnings, and most of them are good: local television, social media, weather radio, radio, and word-of-mouth are just some of the ways you can get the warning.  In particular, I would recommend that you purchase a NOAA Weather Radio.  When a tornado warning is issued, a very loud tone will alert you (if you’re asleep, it will wake you) that a tornado is threatening, followed by a direct warning message from the National Weather Service.  They are readily available at local stores.  Also, if you have a smart phone, I would recommend the iMap Weather Radio app.  It has many of the features of a weather radio, and a few additional ones too.  However, I would still recommend that you purchase a weather radio, since it will certainly wake you if a tornado warning is issued at night.

If you have any questions about tornado safety, don’t hesitate to ask!  I’d be more than happy to answer!


1. Concannon, P., H.E. Brooks, and C. Doswell: “Climatological risk of strong and violent tornadoes in the United States.” 2001.

2. Meyer, C., H.E. Brooks, M.P. Kay: “A hazard model for tornado occurrence in the United States.” 2000.

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Tornado Outbreak Next Week?

This storm season has been underwhelming, to say the least.  Only 153 tornadoes have been reported this year, which is a little more than half of the normal value (Image 1).

Image 1: Monthly trend in tornado reports.  Source: The Storm Prediction Center.

Image 1: Monthly trend in tornado reports. Source: The Storm Prediction Center.

What gives?  Well, during the month of March, multiple cold frontal passages removed the rich, “high octane” moisture of the tropics (necessary for explosive supercell thunderstorm development) far from the Plains.  Accordingly, storm chasers lamented, with some openly wondering whether or not to stick a fork into 2013.   Thus, when a big upper trough appeared in the West in the long-range models (Image 2), chasers were thrown into a frenzy of spring-time excitement.

Image 2: Mid-tropospheric trough on Monday, 8 April, as forecast by the 12Z 3 April GFS.  Source:

Image 2: Mid-tropospheric trough on Monday, 8 April, as forecast by the 12Z 3 April GFS. Source:

While the details about this system remain muddy – the big picture looks quite tantalizing.  In particular, the global models suggest the development of a broad, strong upper-level low over the western United States that will induce strong, southerly low-level flow and associated moisture advection over the central U.S.  Unlike previous events this year, the moisture quality looks quite decent – courtesy of a nice Caribbean fetch (dewpoints at or above 60 F, perhaps over 65 F at some locations, depending on the model; Image 3).

Image 3: 12Z 3 April GFS forecast of dewpoint temperature for 00Z 9 April.  Source:

Image 3: 12Z 3 April GFS forecast of dewpoint temperature for 00Z 9 April. Source:

Given the mean westerly flow this spring – and drought conditions – the elevated mixed-layer also looks primed to create strong instability; indeed, the 12Z 3 April GFS forecast shows over 3500 j/kg in western Oklahoma/western north Texas by Monday evening (April 8th; Image 4).

Image 3: 12Z 3 April GFS forecast of CAPE  for 00Z 9 April.  Source:

Image 4: 12Z 3 April GFS forecast of CAPE for 00Z 9 April. Source:

Nevertheless, the severity of the event remains uncertain.  In particular, the timing of upper-tropospheric waves could be the difference between a decent chase day – and a major tornado outbreak.  As usual, exiting waves would lead to less-than-ideal hodographs, while an entering wave would create the familiar “sickle-shaped” hodographs present during major outbreaks.  In all likelihood, though, the timing of the waves won’t be resolved until the event is within 24 hours.

Also of some concern is the quality of the moisture return.  While the GFS continues to insist on high-grade moisture (65 F isodrosotherm near the dryline by game time), the Euro is significantly less bullish (only lower 60s F Tds).  Even if the Euro is correct, tornadoes would still be in the cards, though the event might be less significant (unless the wind fields are stronger than forecast).  It will certainly be interesting to see which model is closer to reality – although we may not get a feel for this until the day before the potential event.  We’ll see!

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3 Observations From the Largest Tornado Outbreak in History

Tornado paths on April 3-4, 1974.  Image credit: T. Fujita.

Tornado paths on April 3-4, 1974. Image credit: T. Fujita.

Growing up, I was obsessed with tornadoes.  I daydreamed about them.  I watched every TV show about them.  I read every book I could find about them – several times.  And, in those books, there was only one tornado outbreak that was always  mentioned: the Super Outbreak (April 3-4, 1974).  It was the grand-daddy of all outbreaks – a veritable monolith of atmospheric violence.  Even to this day, its statistics still stun: 2 days, 148 tornadoes, 13 states, 30 violent tornadoes, 6 F5 tornadoes, and 315 dead.  It was the benchmark; no other outbreak was even close.  Sure, the Palm Sunday Outbreak of 1965 was a doozy, but it was at least a couple notches below the Super Outbreak.  It was an outbreak so monstrous that most thought its rival would not come for many lifetimes.

Visible satellite presentation of the 2011 Super Outbreak.

Visible satellite presentation of the 2011 Super Outbreak.

Then, from April 26 to April 28 of 2011, the unthinkable happened: another – even bigger – super outbreak of tornadoes ravaged the Southeast.  This time, at least 350 tornadoes occurred across 14 states – including several long-lived, violent tornadoes – killing over 300 people.   With its massive number of tornadoes, it easily became the largest tornado outbreak in American history.  Of these tornadoes, 15 achieved violent ratings (EF4/EF5), and – perhaps – several more would have had this outbreak occurred in the era of lower ratings standards.

Violent tornado near Philadelphia, MS on April 27, 2011.  Photo credit: Dick McGowan

Violent tornado near Philadelphia, MS on April 27, 2011. Photo credit: Dick McGowan

Beyond sheer numbers, though, there are many noteworthy aspects of this outbreak.   One was the large number of highly-visible tornadoes (see right).  As most storm chasers know, the Southeast isn’t exactly known for visually-impressive tornadoes: fast storm motion, heavy precipitation, high trees, and (of course) darkness often make viewing difficult. Yet, many of the 2011 Super Outbreak tornadoes were highly visible – even at a distance (see 0:40 in this video for an example). I’ve seen several videos of expansive rain-free bases with large tornadoes – almost as if these storms were on the low-precipitation side of the supercell continuum. The only exception seems to be the tornadoes that occurred near the warm front, where lower cloud bases made visibility characteristically tough.

Another fascinating part of this outbreak was the high number of smaller vortices within these tornadoes. The Cullman tornado, in particular, was a vortex bonanza. Horizontal vortices, subvortices – even vortices within vortices – were a common sight. And, of course, who can forget the Tuscaloosa tornado? It contained nearly-ubiquitous “octopus tentacles” – a sight so scary that even the editors of “Weekly World News” would have been powerless to make it more frightening.  Additionally, it also featured an invisible, rolling horizontal tube on the front side of the tornado – almost as if the tornado was a giant mower, trimming down the environmental vorticity.  Other major-league tornadoes have produced similar vortices, including the Red Rock tornado (4/26/91), the Moore tornado (5/3/99), and the El Reno tornado (5/24/11).   These vortices are quite rare, as it seems only the most intense tornadoes produce them.

Developing convection in eastern Missippi at 1856 UTC on April 27, 2011.

Developing convection in eastern Missippi at 1856 UTC on April 27, 2011.

Finally, these storms displayed an organization in their incipient supercell stage that I’ve never seen. On a given tornado day, most supercells take a good half-hour to an hour to organize themselves into the characteristic pendant shape on radar. These storms, however, wasted no time. Even before they “broke the cap,” these storms appeared to be rotating.  More fascinating still, the developing convection in eastern Mississippi (see right) displayed a periodicity between storms that I’ve never seen. In that north-south line, at least 14 developing storms can be identified on radar, with a wavelength ranging from 5 – 10 miles. Interestingly, the more intense the storm in that line became, the greater the distance between it and other storms (as one might expect from storm-scale pressure perturbations).

Are there any other aspects of the outbreak that you find interesting?   If you experienced the outbreak(s), what was your experience?

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A Comparison of 2 Incredibly Violent Tornadoes

Since it’s late March and freezing, I’ve decided to think warmer thoughts.  This led me – of course – to watch tornado videos on YouTube.  While perusing, I chose to review two infamous tornadoes, and do an “apparent violence” comparison.

The first was the Andover, KS tornado of April 26, 1991 (rated F5).

The second was the Tuscaloosa, AL tornado of April 27, 2011 (rated high-end EF4).

EF4 tornado devastating Tuscaloosa, Alabama on April 27, 2011.  Image credit: Jason Rosolowksi.

EF4 tornado devastating Tuscaloosa, Alabama on April 27, 2011. Image credit: Jason Rosolowksi.

F5 tornado ripping through Andover, KS on April 26, 1991.  Image credit: Earl Evans.

F5 tornado ripping through Andover, KS on April 26, 1991. Image credit: Earl Evans.

These tornadoes are often compared with each other, both in size and apparent violence.  Both tornadoes formed in an environment characterized by relatively large temperature-dewpoint spreads, allowing for the visible manifestation of core dynamics within the funnel.  Both tornadoes featured impressive horizontal vortices, as well as rapidly-evolving subvortices with strong upward vertical velocities.  In most videos, these tornadoes appear to be virtually identical in shape, size, and intensity. 

However, if you watch the Andover video, you’ll notice – around 4:35 – that it seems to take its violence a notch upward.  The upward vertical velocities appear to increase as the debris field explodes.  As I understand it, this is the point in the path where that tornado hit the Golden Spur mobile home park and caused F5 damage (unfortunately, also where most of the fatalities occurred). 

The Tuscaloosa tornado was quite violent as well, but it never seemed to attain to the apparent intensity of the Andover tornado.  Officially, the Tuscaloosa tornado was rated high-end EF4.  Does the degree of damage confirm the visual inspection?  Or, was the construction of buildings in Tuscaloosa not up to standards, making such comparisons impossible?

To be fair, though, there are at least two other factors to consider.    First, the translational speed of the tornadoes may have impacted the degree of damage.   Though the forward motion of both tornadoes was comparable, the Tuscaloosa tornado was translating ~10 mph faster.  Since the tornadoes were about the same size (when they were most damaging), one can deduce that the Andover tornado spent more time at each location it hit.  Thus, one might expect the Andover tornado to produce a higher degree of damage (even though the tornadic winds would be slightly higher in the Tuscaloosa tornado, given the translational speed).

Second, it’s possible that the most intense portions of the Tuscaloosa tornado were visually obscured by condensation.  Often, this is the reason why some large and violent tornadoes don’t appear incredibly intense, but damage surveys reveal extreme damage.  I suppose one could estimate the lifted condensation level (LCL) and ballpark it, but I’ll leave that to someone else!

Nevertheless, to date, I have not seen a video of a large tornado that is more violent than the Andover tornado.  Are there any other candidates?  Perhaps the Xenia F5 tornado (April 3, 1974) was as violent?

What other tornadoes would you place in this category?

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Reflections on 9/11

“Gabe! Gabe!” the agitated voices of my siblings blared as I groggily rubbed my eyes.  “What?”  I demanded, making thin effort to cover my disgust resulting from this early morning wake-up call on my morning off.  I relished my “sleep in” Tuesdays and Thursdays.  My intro math class wouldn’t start until noon.  This had better be important!  “A plane went into the World Trade Center!”  Huh?  In my mind’s eye, I pictured a small, turbo-prop type plane. Incredulous, I rolled over and said, “Okay.”

As I drifted back to sleep, I had visions of a small plane going into a skyscraper.  In my drowsiness, I figured there would be a little hub-bub on the news, a few unfortunate people would die, and it would take the center spot on the evening news.  Not enough to get me out of bed, though.  Back to sleep.

Twenty minutes later, my siblings burst into my room again.  “Another plane went into the other tower!” they gasped.  Noting the shock of their report and – especially – its tone, I sprang from my bed to the television in the living room.  They had been watching “Good Morning, America”, and Charlie Gibson and Diane Sawyer were recounting the abject horror of the previous minute:

“That looks like a good-sized plane came in and hit the World Trade Center from the other side … so, this is obviously … or would seem to be … and, again, I’m dealing in speculation … but it would seem like there is a concerted attack on one of the World Trade Centers underway.”

Second plane goes into Tower 2 on 9/11. (Photo credit: ABC News)

I watched in shock.  There was no mistaking the truth of Gibson’s assertion: America was under attack.  Strangely, at a time like that, there really are no words.  You want to say something, but don’t know what to say.  It’s weird: you can plainly see what is happening, but it is unfathomable. All you can think about is that many people had just died.  And that thought gave way to the disgusting realization that many more were dying as a veritable hell raged beneath them.  Few words were expressed between my brother, sister, and I.

My mom arrived a while later, and I don’t remember her reaction.  We all just watched as long as we could.  Not a while later, my brother left to go to school – followed shortly by my mother and sister.  I was alone at home – just watching.

Unlike most major events that end quickly and give way to hours of meaningless pundit analysis, the events of 9/11 played out like a movie – a terrifying, all-too-real movie.  First, it was the report that the Pentagon had been hit.  Then came video of that building engulfed in smoke.  What is going on?   Who is doing this?  Who is next?  Many more reports – most of them false – poured in.  Other planes had been hijacked.  Chicago, Los Angeles – maybe even Houston — were next.  It was the fog of war.   There were even some reports that gunmen had entered the U.S. Capitol and had taken hostages.  It was utter chaos.

It’s so hard to identify the worst part of that day, because there were so many.  But, for me, it was when Tower 2 collapsed (the second building hit, the first to fall).  By that time, Peter Jennings — the big dog at ABC at the time — had made his way into the anchor chair at ABC.  While Jennings was talking with a pundit, Tower 2 collapsed.

“Let’s go to the Trade Tower again.  Because we now have … what do we have?  We don’t …”

This was followed by several seconds of silence, as it was apparent that even the unflappable Jennings had no idea what to make of what had just happened.  To be honest, I think he knew — he just didn’t want to say.  Hundreds – probably thousands – of people had just died as Tower 2 collapsed.  One of the World Trade Center towers – an internationally recognized landmark – was no more.  That building had been more than just a place of business.  It had been one half of the central figure in many a New York postcard, the canonical “New York” background in so many movies, the mainstay and pride of the New York skyline, and – indeed — a manifestation of the American Dream itself.  And, in less than 10 seconds, it was gone.

Not long after, a report came in about a downed plane in Pennsylvania.  Then, in the final act, Tower 1 collapsed.  The horror of the day had come to an end, but no one was quite sure it had.  Long after we were safe, we were nervous about other attacks.  Indeed, to this day, I can’t fly in an airplane without thinking about who might be a potential hijacker.  I envision how I might fight would-be terrorists.  I have had dreams about gunmen storming my city, about buildings falling on me.

Freedom Tower in Manhattan. (Photo credit: w00tang01, Flickr)

September 11th is forever seared into our collective American conscious.  Even without the legion reports from the media, or the politicization of the events by our leaders, I believe we couldn’t possibly forget.  Of course, its impact is still felt. The election of Barack Obama may not have happened if George W. Bush hadn’t made a war on terror.  Perhaps our current fiscal crisis would have been less severe if we had not been involved in international conflicts related to terror.  Would this have curbed our national cynicism?  It’s hard to say.  After 9/11, we began to questions ourselves. We were the United Stated States of America, but we didn’t feel like it.  We felt vulnerable … crippled … hurt.

To be sure, healing has begun.  And I, for one, am thankful.  The Freedom Tower in Manhattan is one of the clearest signs.  It is, once again, reaching upwards – a picture of our collective vision.  God-willing, we will get there again.  But today, we remember the thousands who perished, and all whose lives were forever changed on that fateful day.

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Hello, world!  (At least, that’s what my computer science instructors told me to write!)

In a time of dying blogs, you may ask, “Why did you decide to start blogging?”  Well, I wish I could say my reasons are manifold and unique, but the reality is that they are few and prosaic.  To start, I have all these really great ideas that I think everyone should hear … not really.  (But really — I do! ;-))  Second, and of greater personal importance, I’m interested in keeping a (relatively) detailed log of the things I think about.  Reason being, I end up forgetting a lot of my thoughts until I think them again (that’s not “remembering”, is it?), and blogging them seems like a great way of keeping my ideas from getting lost.  Finally, I think that a few of these ruminations may be of some value to somebody, perhaps (hopefully!).

Also, in the interest of partial disclosure, I think you should know that this is not my first blogging iteration; I was never quite successful at posting consistently.  I think,  as Jon Acuff says, it has to do with the so-called “all or nothing” mentality — the enemy of writers everywhere.  That is, would-be-bloggers feel that they have to write an epic masterpiece every time they blog — or else, write nothing.  That single fact has put me in the “would be” category for some time.  The other thing is, I’ve noticed a lot of blogs have themes, and I’m really too varied as a person to stick with themes.  This, as you can imagine, has also kept me from blogging.  Moreover, I’ve determined to just let my thoughts flow this time around.  I’ll write about my faith mostly, but I’ll probably write about other items that I find interesting, including – but not limited to – weather, science, sports, poetry, and philosophy.  The blog length and content will vary accordingly.

Enjoy!  (And please comment, if you care!  I’d love to hear from you.  Even if I don’t know you!)


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